I'm a hard case, so I've already been watching Nationals on Ice Network all week-- yes, I sit through Novice Pattern Dance. But for the more casual fans, here's a brief guide to skating terms. Also see my post on understanding the commentators.
Here's the original terminology post, from February 2010:
As always, every four years, everyone's talking about figure skating. I
won't even dignify the "it can't be a sport because sequins" haterz. Icemom said it pretty well already anyway.
This was the first games I watched with the world, so to speak, via social
media on Twitter, Facebook, Skype and the SM links on the Olympic
site. And it was quite a revelation. I spend my days around figure
skaters, former figure skaters, parents of figure skaters and people who
work at skating rinks.
We all know a LOT about figure skating.
What I didn't know is that other figure skating fans don't
know a lot about figure skating. I always figured that if you're a fan
you know the difference between a lutz, a loop, a toe loop and a flip.
I figured you could tell when a spin is slow, or when a skater has
superior edge quality.
But if Twitter is any guide, this is not the case. People are utterly mystified by the scoring because they really don't think
of it as sport-- they think of it as art, and everyone knows, as the
old joke says that with art, you don't have to understand it, you just
have to know what you like. And people LIKE Patrick Chan. They liked
some of the also-rans who scored low.
So here's a quick tutorial. You can really train yourself to spot
these subtleties, and it will help you understand that, yes, it's a
8 basic jumps, in order of difficulty- Salchow, Toe Walley, Toe Loop,
Loop, Walley, Flip, Axel, Lutz. We've started seeing single walleys again, in footwork and leading into Flips, because it increases the difficulty. It's a funny choppy little jump against the direction of the edge. I
haven't seen a toe walley in decades, so don't worry about them.
Skaters love it when performers do walleys, and the announcers will go
crazy if someone does one.
Edge jumps lift off the gliding edge.
Toe assisted jumps use the toe of the free leg as a vault. On an inside edge
the skater's upper body will be facing into the circle he or she is on.
On an outside edge the skaters body will be facing out of the circle
All jumps described for counter-clockwise skaters (only 1 in 15
or so skaters are cw, Alissa Czisny being one). For CCW, same edge, other
Salchow is an edge jump off a left back inside edge. Toe Loop: toe assisted jump off right back outside edge (RBO). Loop, edge jump RBO. Flip,
toe assisted LBInside. A footwork sequence into a flip is a required
element in singles skating. Actual back flips ala Michael Weiss, Surya
Bonaly and Scott Hamilton are illegal (and I once saw someone faceplant
out of a back flip, so I'm with them on this one). Axel, edge jump with forward take off, LFO edge (everyone recognizes this one because of the dramatic forward launch). Lutz,
toe assist, LBO. Lutz is a "counter jump," that is it changes
rotational direction at the launch. The edge traces a clockwise circle,
but the jump rotates CCW. Lutz is the jump with the long entry edge. When you hear someone talking about "telegraphing" a jump, this is the most common jump they're thinking of.
matters if the skater takes off on the correct edge, because it changes
the difficulty of the jump. It matters if the jump is underrotated.
It's not a triple if it doesn't go around 3 times, just like a touchdown
doesn't count if it doesn't cross the goal line, no matter how long the
run or the pass was, or how elegant the player.
If you get good
at watching, you can tell what jump is coming up by the skater's body
language and positions. One of the wonderful things about YuNa Kim is
that you cannot tell what jump she is going to do, in fact sometimes you
can't even tell that she is setting up for a jump. Kwan had this
ability as well; it's one of the things that makes their skating look so
A jump combination is two or more jumps in a row with no
connecting steps. A jump sequence is any number of jumps with
connecting steps between any of them. The little half and whole
rotation hops that skaters do don't get points for jumping, but are
counted as footwork and transition.
quality refers to the skater's control of their blade. Someone with
good edge quality skates with minimal snowy curves, no ankle wobble or stuttering, and
steady-as-a-rock upper body. You can really see this on the ladies'
spiral sequences. Good edge quality also gives you clean turns and
steps (no scraping sound). Edge quality is the
defining skill of a high level skater. You don't get the big jumps
without the edge quality. As I like to tell my little skaters, my
90-year-old granny can jump, but she can't hold a back outside edge all
the way around a face-off circle on a single push.
Quickie on spins
are three basic spin positions: upright, camel, sit. Upright inludes
those leg stretchers, and Biellmans (the upright backbend). That
hideous spin where the skater bends at the waist FORWARDS and grabs a
foot (butt is now sticking up in the air) is actually an upright spin,
as is a layback. The camel is the one in the arabesque position.
Skaters wave their arms around and keep changing the g*ddam position
because the scoring system gives them points for multiple "features"
i.e. waving their arms around and changing positions. UPDATE: Since I first wrote this a "feature" has been added to allow skaters to maintain a spin position for 8 rotations and get extra points for doing so.
The other disciplines
skating is mostly singles skills with the addition of lifts and throws, which
makes you wonder why so many failed singles skaters switch to pairs.
Man, if you can't do the singles, you're not going suddenly be a genius
Ice dance focuses on partnering and edge quality. UPDATE: It used to be the most demanding from a training standpoint,
because dancers had to master four programs a year-- 2 compulsories, a
short program (the Original Dance) and a long program (the Free Dance). Now it's just Short Dance and Free Dance at the Junior and Senior levels, although Juv, Intermediate and Novice still have to do the pattern dances.
The ISU chooses which compulsories will be skated; everyone trains the
same ones. Don't get me started on how Code of Points has ruined ice
dancing, we'll be here all night.